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Kappa/Lambda Light Chain, Free with Ratio

CPT/HCPCS 83521x2
Order Code CH453
Turnaround Time 48-72 hrs
Specimen Requirements
Specimen Source
Transport Container
(Specimen Container)

Transport Tube

Preferred Specimens
3 mL Serum
Minimum Volume (uL)
2 mL
Collection Instructions
(Transport Temperature)
Room Temperature
Specimen Stability
Temperature Period
Room temperature 73 hours
Refrigerated 21 days
Frozen 30 days
Reject Criteria

Gross hemolysis, Grossly lipemic, Microbially contaminated, Heavy visible particulate

Test Details
Immunoturbidimetric Assay
Clinical Significance

Kappa/Lambda Light Chains, Free with Ratio – The Kappa/Lambda Light Chains, Free with Ratio, Serum test measures the amount of kappa and lambda free light chains (FLCs) in the blood and calculates the kappa to lambda ratio. It is used to assist in the diagnosis of plasma cell disorders, including multiple myeloma, primary amyloidosis, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, and related disorders. It is also used to monitor disease activity and treatment.

Kappa and lambda light chains link with heavy chains to form immunoglobulins. In healthy individuals, most serum light chains are bound to heavy chains. However, excess plasma-cell proliferation associated with plasma-cell disorders can cause an excess of circulating FLCs and increase or decrease the K/L ratio.

This test is intended for patients clinically suspected of having hematologic disease, based on certain symptoms and medical conditions. These include bone pain, bone fractures, normocytic anemia, kidney disease, and recurrent infections suggestive of an underlying plasma-cell disorder.

Note that blood samples that are grossly hemolyzed or lipemic or contain high levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) should not be tested, because of the unpredictable degree of nonspecific scatter these sample types may generate.

Reference Ranges

3.3-19.4 mg/L

Alternative Names
Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains